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Received: 4 May 2022 / Revised: 4 June 2022 / Accepted: 7 June 2022 / Published: 8 June 2022
Popular real-time monitoring devices are used in modern power grids. To ensure the long-term operation of the monitoring system in complex outdoor conditions, a reliable and stable power source is essential. In this paper, a general analysis of a domino wireless power transfer (WPT) system with no-load output is proposed to obtain a stable power supply for monitoring devices. In addition, a method to analyze the self-oscillation point of the proposed WPT domino system is estimated. The availability and feasibility of the proposed analysis and control methods are verified by simulation and experimental results based on a four-coil WPT system.
Characterization Of Current Domino Effect Research.
Online monitoring devices are widely used for high voltage transmission lines (HVTLs) to ensure safe operation, as electrical parameters, cable temperature, weather conditions, and detection of lifetime accessories for HVTLs are monitored by these devices. 3]. To ensure continuous operation of the monitoring system during rainy and snowy weather, a reliable power supply is essential. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy along with energy storage systems are used to provide energy. However, the weather-dependent characteristics (for example, solar energy is not available at night) and the large size of the equipment has significantly limited the value of the application. To solve this problem, a current transformer (CT) in the transmission line is selected for energy harvesting [4, 5, 6]. CTs can be connected directly to potential monitoring devices like HVTLs. However, this method cannot currently be used to power low-voltage side monitoring devices due to insulation requirements. For this purpose, magnetic coupling wireless power transfer (WPT) is one of the techniques that can be used [7, 8, 9, 10]. It can provide suitable creepage distance and good isolation performance. In addition, the cost, volume, and operational complexity of the charging system can be significantly reduced.
The concept of a magnetic resonator, which consists of a transmitter and receiver coil compensated with a series of capacitors to transmit power wirelessly, was first proposed by Nikola Tesla over a century ago [11, 12]. Depending on the mechanism of energy transfer, WPT can be realized in radiative and non-radiative ways. WPT Radiative has been chosen as the best way to transmit information over long distances through antennas in the form of electromagnetic waves. However, due to omnidirectional radiation, the energy transfer efficiency is very low. Alternatively, non-radiative WPT resonators rely on near-field magnetic coupling, which can be classified as short-range, mid-range, and long-range applications. The classification is based on the ratio of the power transfer distance d to the coil radius r . A short-range system is defined as d/r less than 3 . Otherwise, the system is considered mid-range or long-range.
Traditionally, two-phase WPT systems are used for high-voltage power grid monitoring equipment. Two side coils are mounted symmetrically at the ends of the high voltage suspension insulator strings. The CT is installed in the transmission line to collect energy through the magnetic field, and the variable-controlled power converter, which usually uses a rectifier, a dc / dc converter, and a high-frequency dc / ac converter. To sense the high frequency current flow in the resonator. Then, energy is transferred from the transmitter coil to the receiver coil through electromagnetic induction. For ease of analysis, CT with converter is considered as DC voltage source with dc/ac inverter in the next session. For a conventional two-phase WPT system, the power transfer efficiency is limited by the transmission distance between the two side windings. To increase the power transfer distance, the size of the coil should be designed as large as possible to increase the mutual inductance between the two inductors. However, it can be difficult to install coils. Alternatively, the Domino WPT system is provided to reduce coil size while still maintaining high transfer efficiency. The intermediate coil has been widely adopted in recent decades [15, 16, 17, 18] as a domino structure between the transmitter and receiver coils. The block diagram of the conventional two-phase WPT and domino system for high voltage power grid monitoring equipment is illustrated as shown in Figure 1. The relay coil can increase the magnetic field between adjacent units and strengthen the coupling regime. In , the research team achieved a transfer of 60 watts with 40% efficiency at a distance of two meters using a relay coil located near the transmitter and a receiver loop, and in , a WPT domino system with seven relay coils. It can achieve 70% efficiency at a transfer distance of 0.7 meters. It is worth noting that the domino-resonator characteristics are not only to improve the efficiency of power transfer over long distances but also to achieve load-independent output regulation [21, 22, 23]. Therefore, it is useful to provide an efficient and stable charging process for monitoring devices.
As one of the emerging applications, the use of domino WPT systems for power sources to monitor equipment in HVTL is developing rapidly. In , an optimization method was proposed to improve the quality factor and coupling effect of the WPT domino system, and the output power of 16.7 W was realized at a transmission distance of 1.5 m with an efficiency of 15%. In addition, the magnetic field distribution of the insulator cable in the HVTL system is simulated. The results show that the cross-coupling effect between the HVTL and the domino WPT system can be neglected, which significantly reduces the complexity of the system modeling. In , a rotating multi-coil receiver structure is adopted for a WPT domino system realizing a 20 W power system with a transmission distance of more than 1.12 m. In , the transmission distance of the WPT system has been proven to increase by increasing the operating frequency of the system higher than the resonance frequency, and  realized a higher transmission distance at the operating frequency of 600 kHz. In reference , the compensation structure of the receiver-side circuit is changed to ensure a stable output, while still maintaining a suitable transmission distance.
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However, using the WPT system to supply power to monitoring equipment also has some limitations: First, the power of the WPT system depends on the grid system. If the current in the HVTL is too low, the WPT system may not have enough power to ensure the normal operation of the monitoring equipment. Second, when there is an open circuit fault in the power supply system, the WPT system will go out of action. Third, the operation performance of the WPT system will be affected by the external environment, such as the coil will be deformed when it rains or snows.
Output regulation is one of the most important factors in ensuring stable charging requirements. Considerable research has been devoted to managing system output. Generally, an output power controller, such as a dc/dc converter, is installed on the receiver side to control the output performance of the system [ 29 , 30 , 31 ]. However, the high cost and complexity of additional equipment control cannot be ignored. In , the voltage differential signal of the primary side circuit is used to automatically track the working frequency. However, it is only suitable for parallel series (PS) compensation schemes. In , a sub-resonant frequency control system is proposed to realize constant current (CC) output by adjusting the operating frequency. However, the reliability of CC control is limited by certain
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