Health Promotion In Older Adults - Objectives In this qualitative study, we provide an in-depth exploration of older people's experiences and subjective meanings regarding their participation in health promotion, as well as the emotional and pragmatic difficulties they face during your engagement.
Methods The study was designed according to the method of ethnoscience, which includes a participatory process that evaluates the linguistic expressions of patients in order to gain a deeper understanding and give meaning to the phenomena under investigation. Using this method, thanks to repeated interviews and a Q-sorting task, the participants created a dictionary, with the help of the researcher, to describe the phenomenon of interest. They agreed on a common taxonomy of meanings and experiences associated with the phenomenon. 25 elderly citizens from northern Italy participated in this research.
Health Promotion In Older Adults
Results Participants described a common taxonomy of health engagement experiences representing 3 main positions (ie, locked position; awake position; climbing position), which represented different experiential domains grouped by participants into 4 areas of main semantics (eg, physical care, care for soul etc. .). everyday lifestyle, contact with aging). Each position is characterized by specific emotions, personal representations of meaning, and healthy behaviors that can maintain or prevent older citizens' participation in health promotion.
Pdf] Overview On Health Promotion For Older People In Germany
Conclusions The results of this study indicate the importance of a deeper understanding of the experiences of older people and their subjective meanings of health promotion. In particular, the results showed that their participation in health promotion is framed by a complex system of psychological meanings, which can maintain or hinder their ability to adopt healthy behaviors. A deeper understanding of the lived experiences of older people, their doubts and difficulties in participating in health promotion can offer some important clues to guide interventions in this area.
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Societies around the world face an aging population due to the rapid decline in mortality in recent decades due to scientific and technological progress.1 In Italy, life expectancy has increased by 2 years in the last 10 years; however, people actually live the last third of their lives with at least one chronic disease.2 The rapid growth of an aging population poses important challenges, especially those related to the health of the elderly.3 Most societies must promote healthy behaviors, prevent disease, and develop efficient and environmentally friendly inexpensive strategies for effective management of the health burden associated with an aging population.4 Different theoretical models have been developed in the literature with the aim of promoting changes in the health behavior of patients/citizens working at the individual, interpersonal or community level. For example, looking at the individual level, the widely accepted health belief model recognizes the importance of people's beliefs about health problems, perceived benefits and barriers to action, cues to action, and self-efficacy to explain commitment to health. -behavior promotion.5–7 In a different way, the transtheoretical model understands behavior change as a process involving five levels of disposition to change (that is, precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance) through which individuals progress to adopting healthy behaviors or eliminating them. . 8 In addition, social cognitive theory is adopted at the individual and interpersonal levels to understand the ways in which personal cognitive factors (eg, self-efficacy, observational learning, expectations) can represent a third interface between the individual and the social environment that can sustain behavior change. .9 Similarly, the theory of planned behavior links beliefs to health behaviors and suggests ways in which behaviors, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control can together shape an individual's behavioral intentions and thus behaviors. 10 Most of these models, however, have not taken into account take into account cultural and age factors that are necessary to explain health differences. - behavior promotion.11,12 Namely, given that older people differ from younger groups in important aspects regarding their health status, living situation, well-being and educational level 13,14, research into the process of involvement in health promotion among older adults people will likely find it useful to consider these differences. Consequently, studies are needed on the determinants that, from an individual perspective, may sustain or prevent the participation of older citizens in health promotion by giving voice to the experiences of older citizens15-17.
Older Adult Center
The aim of this study was to provide a deeper understanding of senior citizens' experiences with health promotion, with particular reference to the meanings and subjective elements that – from the perspective of senior citizens – can facilitate or hinder these experiences. Based on these premises, the objectives of the study were twofold:
Following the recent activities of the European Union on ageing, 18 we aim to provide a knowledge base to promote appropriate strategies and interventions to improve the participation of older citizens in health promotion and improve their living conditions by deliberately focusing on a specific age. group (elderly people under the age of 75), who could particularly benefit from health promotion initiatives because in most cases they are still in good shape, active and able to take care of themselves. Consequently, improving healthy habits in this subgroup of older people may be feasible, as well as preventing negative clinical situations.19 It is not surprising that most preventive measures and health promotion initiatives focus on this "young" age group to avoid ill health. related problems in the coming decades.20,21
A qualitative study designed according to the method of ethnoscience22 was adopted to involve the wider citizenry in building a common vocabulary and common taxonomy related to their experiences in health management. This method assumes the importance of studying language (and how language is used) to understand the implicit meanings associated with individual experiences. The language choices that speakers make when describing their health management attitudes and behaviors can actually reveal people's social representations, emotional experiences, and psychological attitudes toward their own health. This can be particularly significant when the phenomenon being investigated is complex and 'abstract' (such as talking about one's own involvement in health promotion) and when respondents may have difficulty reflecting more deeply on their related experiences. Ethnography is based on repeated semi-structured interviews and Q-sorting tasks to allow flexible exploration of the phenomena under investigation and the study of participants' lexical expressions when describing their experiences (see section Data collection and procedure).23 The Q-sorting technique is a general methodology that used for collecting and processing a person's point of view, as well as for categorizing a complex phenomenon.24 By Q-sorting, people reveal their individual way of categorizing phenomena and giving meaning to a certain reality.25,26 In more detail, all respondents were interviewed twice. In the first round, they were asked to reflect on their health promotion experiences following a semi-structured interview guide and a non-directive moderating style. In the second round of interviews, they were asked to engage in a participatory analysis process with the aim of creating a common vocabulary and taxonomy of health promotion experiences through Q-sort tasks. Specifically, the tasks consisted of selecting tiles (representing linguistic extracts from previous interviews) that reflected their health promotion experience, grouping the selected tiles, assigning a name to each group, reflecting on the relationships between the groups and providing insight into factors that may promote/ interfere with the health promotion experiences of older people (see next paragraph for more details).
The participants took part in two consecutive rounds of semi-structured interviews. Two researchers conducted the interviews together. Both were psychologists trained in qualitative methods.
Home Sweet Home: Resources For Promoting Mobility For Aging In Place Across Settings
Each interview was conducted in the person's home or at the desired location of the participant. The interviews lasted from 40 to 90 minutes, with an average duration of 60 minutes.
A purposive sample of 25 older adults from northern Italy was sequentially recruited to participate in the study. 28 Potential participants were recruited in a variety of ways. First, citizens were recruited from various senior centers (eg, community centers, activity centers, recreation associations, community recreation centers), contacted by phone or email and invited to participate in the study. Individuals with the desired characteristics were then asked to recommend similar participants from their social networks, beginning "a process analogous to snowballs rolling down a hill." vulnerable or hard-to-reach groups in a more efficient, pragmatic and culturally competent way. 29
All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis using an inductive approach.32 Two researchers independently analyzed and coded the transcripts to identify key words, phrases, and expressions that participants repeatedly used to describe their health promotion experiences. At a joint meeting, the researchers discussed and agreed on a list of selected language expressions. This process resulted in a shared 'vocabulary' containing words/phrases which were then written on cards for use in the second stage of the research process: the Q-sort tasks. Those tasks have been completed
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