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Countries With High Hiv Rates
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Hiv And Black/african American People In The U.s.
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HIV enhances human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced carcinogenesis. However, the contribution of HIV to the burden of cervical cancer at the population level has not been quantified. We aim to investigate cervical cancer risk among women living with HIV and estimate the global burden of HIV-related cervical cancer.
We conducted a systematic literature search and meta-analysis of five databases (PubMed, Embase, Global Health [CABI.org], Web of Science, and Global Index Medicus) to identify studies examining the association between HIV infection and cervical cancer. We estimated the overall risk of cervical cancer among women living with HIV in four continents (Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America). The risk ratio (RR) was combined with UNAIDS country HIV prevalence estimates and GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates, the proportion of women living with HIV among women with cervical cancer and population-based proportions, and age-standardized rates of disease (ASIR). ) HIV-related cervical cancer.
24 studies met our inclusion criteria involving 236 127 women living with HIV. The overall risk of cervical cancer was increased in women living with HIV (RR 6·07, 95% CI 4·40–8·37). Globally, 5.8% (95% CI 4.6–7.3) of new cases of cervical cancer in 2018 (33 000 new cases, 95% CI 26 000–42 000) were diagnosed in women living with HIV, and 4.9% (95% CI) 3.6–6.4) was associated with HIV infection (28 000 new cases, 20 000–36 000). The regions of Southern Africa and East Africa were the most affected. In South Africa, 63.8% (95% CI 58.9–68.1) of women with cervical cancer (9200 new cases, 95% CI 8500–9800) were living with HIV and 27.4% (23). ·7–31·7) of East African women (14 000 new cases, 12 000–17 000). The ASIR for HIV-associated cervical cancer exceeded 20 per 100 000 in six countries, all in southern and eastern Africa.
Women And Hiv In The United States
Women living with HIV have a significantly increased risk of cervical cancer. Vaccination against HPV and for women living with HIV is particularly important in countries in southern and eastern Africa, where a high burden of HIV-related cervical cancer has been added to the burden of cervical cancer.
Although cervical cancer is one of the most preventable and treatable malignancies, it is the fourth most common cancer diagnosed in women worldwide, with more than half a million new cases and 311 365 deaths in 2018.
Only the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV; types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59) causes cervical cancer.
Geographical differences in the burden of cervical cancer are substantial and reflect the availability, coverage, and quality of prevention strategies and the prevalence of risk factors. Almost nine out of ten women who die from cervical cancer live in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).
Hiv/aids In Africa
The disparities are widening: observed incidence rates are declining most rapidly in high-income countries, and some countries are on track to eliminate cervical cancer in the coming decades.
Impact of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical screening and the potential for global cervical cancer elimination in 181 countries, 2020-99: a modeling study.
And increased at a high level or remained relatively stable in a number of countries in Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
Cervical cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women living with HIV and is classified as an AIDS-defining disease.
The Global Hiv/aids Epidemic
Joint guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection: health care approach guidelines (second edition)—Annex 10, WHO clinical staging of HIV infection in adults, adolescents and children.
With the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), AIDS-related deaths have decreased significantly, and life expectancy for people living with HIV has increased to nearly the same level as people without HIV.
Effect of CD4+ cell count and viral load response to antiretroviral therapy on life expectancy in HIV-1-positive patients.
As a result, the number of adult women living with HIV has increased from approximately 3.3 million in 1990 to 18.8 million in 2018; 60% of these women live in eastern and southern Africa.
Increasing Knowledge Of Hiv Status In A Country With High Hiv Testing Coverage: Results From The Botswana Combination Prevention Project
Background studies Background to this study A meta-analysis published in 2007 reported an increased risk of cervical cancer among women living with HIV (hazard ratio 5·8, 95% CI 3·0–11.3), based on six high-level data. income countries No follow-up studies were conducted to update this estimate, and no study extended the results to low- and middle-income countries. The added value of this study is that we present a pooled estimate of cervical cancer risk in 236 127 of 24 individual studies, including 236 127. Women living with HIV from four continents (Africa, Asia, Europe and North America). We also provide global estimates of the proportion of women with cervical cancer living with HIV, together with the proportion of the population attributable to HIV infection and the incidence of cervical cancer. with women without HIV. Worldwide, about 6% of women with cervical cancer are living with HIV and less than 5% of cervical cancer is HIV-related. However, these proportions vary greatly by region; 85% of women with cervical cancer and HIV live in sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the major contribution of HIV to the burden of cervical cancer in the region. In countries with a high burden of cervical cancer and HIV, the integration of HIV and cervical cancer treatment and vaccination of girls against human papillomavirus is essential to ensure a long-term reduction in the burden of disease in the future.
Although the conditions for high burden of cervical cancer and HIV overlap, the contribution of HIV to cervical cancer burden and the proportion of cervical cancer cases due to HIV infection has yet to be determined. In this meta-analysis and modeling study, we aimed to provide a pooled estimate of the relative risk of cervical cancer among women living with HIV and to present an estimate of the incidence of HIV-related cervical cancer among women living with HIV. GLOBOCAN 2018 HIV prevalence and cancer estimates 2018.
We systematically searched five databases (PubMed, Embase, Global Health [CABI.org], Web of Science, and Global Index Medicus) to identify studies examining the association between HIV infection and cervical cancer. A detailed search strategy can be found in the appendix (pp. 3-6). Briefly, we used a WHO-validated search strategy for “HIV” and “AIDS” and combined these terms with “cervical cancer” and standard WHO epidemiological terms (eg, “incidence” and “prevalence”). The search was conducted on April 29, 2019. We did not limit our search by language or year of publication. We included the risk ratio (RR), odds ratio (RR), as OR), hazard ratio (HR), incidence ratio (IRR), or standardized incidence ratio (SIR) among women living with HIV compared with women without HIV -infection or the general female reference population. Our exclusion criteria were HIV status based on self-report and studies with fewer than four cases of cervical cancer.
The published literature was reviewed for inclusion by two of us (DS and LFT) independently. These same reviewers extracted data from the included studies. Disagreements were resolved by consensus between two reviewers. Only one study per cohort was included in the quantitative analysis to avoid double inclusion of patients. We selected the study with the longest follow-up time or the largest sample size. We listed the inclusion criteria and all studies used to calculate the pooled RR (Appendix, pp. 7–18); for those excluded, we reported the main reason. A study selection flowchart and MOOSE checklist are in the Appendix (pp. 19-21). Risk of bias was assessed according to the Newcastle-Ottawa scale, a tool used to evaluate observational studies.
Pdf] Hiv/aids In The South East Asia Region: Progress And Challenges
We classified studies as being at high risk of bias if scores were below eight stars. All other studies were considered to be at low or moderate risk of bias.
For the statistical model, HIV prevalence estimates among adult women (≥15 years) were obtained from UNAIDS in 2018.
HIV prevalence estimates were available for 170 of the 194 UN countries. Specific estimates (number of cases and incidence rate per 100 000) from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) were available for 185 countries for invasive cervical cancer (ICD-10 code C53).
Both data sources together were available for 170 countries. In 15 countries and territories for which HIV estimates are not available, there were fewer than 1,000 cases of cervical cancer in 2018 (Appendix, p. 64) and
Hiv Prevalence And Associated Risk Factors Among Individuals Aged 13 34 Years In Rural Western Kenya
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