Effective Feedback Strategies For Teachers - We are taught to believe that feedback is a good thing. It is important to help us develop new skills and areas where we cannot test ourselves. Instead, the answers are based on the top 5-10 measures of student success, which explains why they are the foundation of learning in the early grades as students compete for teacher praise or gold stickers. Most reviews are good, right?
Unfortunately, research shows that the results of the responses vary greatly depending on the focus and context. Much of the information teachers provide to students is ineffective or, in some cases, disruptive to their learning. An analysis of 131 feedback studies found that more than one-third of feedback strategies actually decreased performance. . Well-intentioned teachers frequently give feedback to students that demotivates students and hinders their learning.
Effective Feedback Strategies For Teachers
This is of particular concern because of the need for feedback when students are performing complex tasks such as problem solving and analysis. Unlike activities where students are simply asked to memorize and recall what they have learned, critical learning requires the student to really think about the information and understand the processes that lead to success. Accountability is the key to this gradual understanding. If our goal is for students to remember a fact ("Who were the Axis Powers in World War II?"), then tell the student that their answer is right or wrong. But if we want students to think about the integration of ideas ("How long was the outbreak of World War II?"), then we need to give students strong feedback that guides their thinking.
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Fortunately, cognitive science provides the knowledge needed to provide accurate feedback to improve student outcomes. We analyzed this research to find the most important, effective solutions for deep learning.
Feedback that results from the illusion of performance-enhancing qualities such as intelligence undermines student outcomes. Comments such as, "You are very smart" or "You are a good writer" encourage students that their work is a reflection of themselves, and that it is their mindset that is valued, not the quality of their work. These types of responses tend to turn away from the task at hand and toward self-interest. The student is no longer thinking about the skill or knowledge they are trying to learn; Instead, the student thinks about himself.
If a student has negative thoughts about himself ("I don't think math is your strong suit"), the student often loses interest in learning. Sometimes the self-thought is positive ("you are a natural thinker"), the feedback makes the student leave the problem because he wants to protect his good reputation by avoiding failure.
To encourage growth and encourage students to take action to improve their learning, feedback should be task-specific and not student-specific. Instead of saying something about the student's "writing ability," it's better to say something related to the actual work ("You did a great job supporting your argument with evidence in the text.") This makes the student focus on learning. work by reducing the influence of his ego.
Why Giving Instant Feedback Is Important For Effective Learning
Random answers are not helpful for students, especially if they want to know how to do a difficult task. Telling the student he did a "good job"! or the need to "try" does not encourage the student to think about knowledge or to think about how to produce different outcomes moving forward. When it comes to measuring student performance, non-specific responses such as praise, rewards, and punishments take a back seat to specific and action-oriented responses.
Imagine if you were trying to learn a new skill, like basketball for free. After many failed attempts to get the ball in, you manage to score. Wouldn't it be helpful to hear the teacher exclaim "Well done!" through the court, or would it be better to know why this shooting was successful, unlike the previous ones? ("Yes! You bent your arm 90 degrees before you shook, and that made a big difference.") Taking the time to explain what the student did right and wrong will allow the student to perform better when the technique or technique is used in the future. .
Of course, providing informed feedback about the learning process requires understanding the learner's thinking and how they use the process. Some assessment methods are better suited for this than others. When choosing a short or multiple choice question, the teacher can consider the need for students to create their own words and express their ideas in the answer. Gaining more insight from the student's perspective helps teachers provide more meaningful feedback.
Most students don't get as much feedback as they would like. In a typical classroom, the number of responses is measured in a few minutes per day. Students often work on their own, which is understandable due to the large number of students that one teacher interacts with. But for students who unknowingly make the same mistakes over and over again, not responding regularly leads to wasted time and frustration.
Getting Started With Peer Observation
Efforts to improve this often result in quantitative assessments that provide students with information about performance outcomes (achievements and grades) rather than learning outcomes. This is due to the problem of many students and lack of teachers. Providing feedback to students on their learning behavior and thinking requires attention that real classroom teachers cannot provide. Providing machine-readable multiple-choice questions and telling the student often seems like the only way to go.
Addressing this feedback gap requires thinking outside of the classroom system where teachers are responsible for providing feedback on grades and comments. Are there ways for students to monitor their learning without teacher intervention? Can digital device data be used as a way to provide continuous and actionable feedback? Can sharing notes and answers help students learn from each other and provide feedback to their peers? Research on self-assessment and self-evaluation has shown that giving students the opportunity to self-assess their own learning results in greater academic achievement and deeper reflection on the learning process. Using students' skills to assess their thinking can allow them to think critically about the strategies they use and help them build their knowledge for future learning.
In many cases, classroom assessments are used to determine students' abilities rather than to encourage reflection on knowledge. We measure student outcomes without understanding how those outcomes came about or how they relate to student learning and teaching. Improving feedback requires rethinking how we assess students.
The first step would be to give students a chance to revise their wrong answers. Through student research, we found that one of the most popular features of Active Learning is the "repeat answer" button. Students want to improve and get a second chance to try a different way of answering a question. . Teachers who encourage students to reevaluate their answers send students the message that learning is about thinking and doing things rather than being good at them.
Feedback: The Key To Better Teaching And Learning
Providing cognitive feedback that supports deep learning also helps teachers improve their teaching. When teachers focus on learning rather than performance, feedback becomes a two-way street. Although the student is the one who "earns" the grade, identifying the learning process informs the students' learning and also influences the teacher to find the best way to guide students to academic success. It challenges the teacher to identify what makes students perform well and contributes to the development of student thinking.
As with most courses, the answers are both art and science. Cognitive research can point us in the right direction, but the teacher still knows how best to help the student. We hope you use these best practices to promote your students' growth and enable them to learn deeply. how to enhance the learning experience. In June 2021, the EEF published a very useful report entitled, 'Taking Action: Reviewing Practice in English Schools.
The research analyzed feedback systems - looking at their goals, scope of work and methods of operation. It recognizes that no two policy approaches are the same and that schools are making decisions based on specific teaching and learning strategies. Here are some interesting findings from this study:
One of the findings was that many guidelines did not mention evidence-based research, perhaps because of their broad coverage. The
Full Article: Developing An Instrument For Teacher Feedback: Using The Rasch Model To Explore Teachers' Development Of Effective Teaching Strategies And Behaviors
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