Vocational Training In Germany For International Students - Germany's VET is considered a successful model and is mainly based on a dual (practical) system, which provides quality professional qualifications. Apprenticeships enable a smooth transition from education to work and reduce youth unemployment (2015: 7.2% for 15-24 year olds vs. 20.4% for EU28).
About one in two high school graduates chooses a vocational education program. 70% of them participate in practice. A growing proportion of those with entry-level qualifications in higher education shows the appeal of apprenticeships. A dual tertiary level study program and advanced vocational training enable you to qualify for middle and senior management positions in companies. Germany's well-trained and skilled workforce is a prerequisite for economic success.
Vocational Training In Germany For International Students
National standards and training regulations (both in-house and school-based component curricula) ensure the success of dual training programs. Companies provide training in accordance with vocational training regulations created by four stakeholders: federal and state governments, companies and unions. These regulations allow flexibility in adopting company training plans with apprentices. Study in a vocational school is based on a framework curriculum in accordance with the training regulations developed for each recognized training profession.
Pdf] Dual Study Programmes In Global Context: Internationalisation In Germany And Transfer To Brazil, France, Qatar, Mexico And The Us
Regular review of training regulations ensures that we keep up with rapid technical and organizational changes. Initiatives for updating or developing completely new professional profiles come from the social partners or from the Federal Institute of VET ([ 2 ]). After consultation with all parties involved, the competent federal ministry will decide whether to proceed. Cooperation between states and social partners is an essential element of VET. Social dialogue and joint decisions are the means to ensure the acceptance of VET reforms.
Another feature of the German VET system is the approach to how to acquire professional competence, the concept of so-called "professional competence". This comprehensive and integrated approach to the acquisition of competences during VET is in contrast to the isolated acquisition of skills and competences. The European Qualifications Framework (EQF) learning outcomes approach.
Recently, the number of available training places has increased again, demonstrating the need to balance supply and demand, taking into account important regional and branch-specific differences. If you have problems matching, we offer individual support for unsuccessful applicants and guidance for small and medium-sized enterprises. The Alliance for Initial and Further Training is committed to the integration of all VET applicants, including those from disadvantaged entry positions, through pre-VET measures, assistance and support during training. To avoid dropping out of training, senior specialists offer individual training to trainees.
Digital innovation affects qualification profiles and curricula. The VET 4.0 initiative identifies the changing requirements for skilled workforce qualifications and how to meet the challenges of digitization.
School Based Vocational Training
A large-scale multimedia information campaign on practical training has been resumed. Early career guidance in schools is now widely practiced in general secondary schools from the 7th grade onwards. VET online portals cater to specific target groups such as young women and university dropouts.
Since 2015, more than 1 million asylum seekers have arrived in Germany. Their integration into the labor market and the VET system is a priority. It enables German language learning, validates formal and informal skills, provides career guidance and provides access to VET, apprenticeships and employment. Existing programs addressing disadvantaged groups (such as migrants) have expanded their focus to include refugees, and new programs dedicated to this group have been launched.
Migration increased by 2.8% from 2013 (net migration in 2015: +1.1 million) ().
The elderly dependency rate is expected to increase from 32 in 2015 to 55 in 2060 ().
Education In Germany
The current high rate of aging of the middle-aged population will result in major changes in the age structure as they join the 65+ age group. In 2015, 13.2% of the population were under the age of 14, 65.8% were between the ages of 15 and 65, and 21% were over 65. By 2060, 13.8% of the population will be under the age of 14, but only 55.6% will be between the ages of 15 and 64, or of working age. The population over 65 will increase to 30.6%.
Over time, the number of young people is decreasing and more young people choose higher education. This partly explains the high number of trainee vacancies.
The vast majority of companies in 2016 (3.46 million companies, 99.6%) were small businesses (1-9 employees) and SMEs (SMEs, 10-249 employees). %) of all companies were micro-enterprises. Only 14,630 companies had more than 249 employees. In total, 61% of the 29.1 million employees worked in micro and small businesses. Small businesses employ about 19% of active people, small businesses (10-49 employees) about 23.2%, and medium-sized businesses (50-249 employees). employees), about 19.3%. These micro-enterprises and SMEs
, plays a major role in the dual VET system by providing the largest number of apprenticeship placements (1.12 million in 2016, compared to around 450,000 in large companies with 249 or more employees). practitioner) ().
Dual Vocational Training System
In 2017, most employers (74.5%) worked in the tertiary economic sector (mainly services), 24.1% in the secondary sector (production) and 1.4% in the primary sector. I work in the following sectors (agriculture, forestry, fishing). ().
The proportion of companies in the primary sector offering apprenticeships has fallen in recent years. In the second sector, many companies offer internships and this number remained stable in 2016. legal services, services related to information and communication), transport, trade, accommodation facilities and catering services.
Total unemployment rate ([ 9 ]) (2018): 3.1% (6% in EU28); down 3.9% from 2008 ().
Note: Data based on ISCED 2011. Disaggregated by time series. ISCED 0-2 = Primary, primary, less than lower secondary. ISCED 3-4 = Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education. ISCED 5-8 = Higher Education.
Pdf) The 'academization' Of The German Qualification System: Recent Developments In The Relationships Between Vocational Training And Higher Education In Germany
During the crisis, inequality widened as unskilled workers became more vulnerable to unemployment. In 2018, the unemployment rate for those with upper secondary and non-tertiary education, where the majority of VET graduates reside (ISCED Levels 3 and 4), was higher than the unemployment rate for those with higher education (2.9%). compared to 1.9%). However, those with lower skills (below lower secondary education) faced a much higher risk of unemployment at 8.5%.
The employment rate of VET graduates aged 20 to 34 increased from 87.6% in 2014 to 89.7% in 2018 ().
Note: Data based on ISCED 2011. Disaggregated by time series. ISCED 3-4 = Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.
Employment growth for VET graduates aged 20-34 in 2014-18 (+2.1pp) was higher than that for all German graduates aged 20-34 over the same period (+1.5pp) ().
How Do I Find A Vocational Training?
For more information on the external factors influencing the development of VET in Germany, see the case study [12a] of the changing nature and role of VET in European projects.
Upper secondary and non-tertiary post-secondary education at ISCED levels 3-4 is very popular in Germany (57.4%) compared to most other EU member states. This may be related to the fact that internships are an attractive career path and are even chosen by high school graduates.
Note: Data based on ISCED 2011. Low reliability in the Czech Republic, Poland and Latvia. ISCED 0-2 = Primary, primary, less than lower secondary. ISCED 3-4 = Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education. ISCED 5-8 = Higher Education.
For more information on VET in German higher education, see the case study in the project The Changing Nature and Role of VET in Europe [12b].
Studying In Germany Explained For International Students
Young people and young adults continue to take very different directions in the German VET market. This applies not only to the training paths girls and boys follow, but also to the training professions they choose. For example, there are more young men (over 60%) in dual VET systems and more young women (75%) in full-time school training, mainly in health, education and social professions.
In the apprenticeship program, the top five occupations for men are Automotive Mechatronics Technician, Electronics Technician, IT Specialist, Factory and Industrial Machinery. The top five occupations for female interns are administrative assistants, medical assistants, dental nurses, retail sales associates and sales associates.
The proportion of early leavers from education and training fell from 11.1% in 2009 to 10.3% in 2018, almost reaching the 2020 national target of 10% or less.
NB: Percentage of the population aged 18-24 who have at most lower secondary education and no further education or training. Break in series.
Dual Vocational Training (ausbildung)
Special assistance will be provided to young people who need help to complete their vocational training. Registration is voluntary and support consists of special classes and accompanying social education mentors to help trainees overcome language and educational deficits and acquire specialized theoretical knowledge for at least three hours a week. The law establishing this measure entered into force in May 2015. In 2017, 36,000 young people were beneficiaries (). This represents 2.7% of all apprentices in 2017. It helps learners avoid dropping out.
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