Which Pension Fund Is Best - Based on capitalization rate, Wisconsin, Washington and South Dakota have the best funded public pension plans in the United States. The worst funded plans are in Illinois, Kentucky and New Jersey.
However, some states have a higher proportion of unfunded pension liabilities (or pension debt) than others. California, Illinois, New Jersey, Texas and Pennsylvania have the highest level of unfunded liabilities in the United States in dollar terms as of September 2022. Washington State, New York, Tennessee, Wisconsin, D.C. and Delaware have no unfunded liabilities. These states are actually
Which Pension Fund Is Best
Public pension plans in the US are available to a wide variety of workers, including teachers, state and municipal employees, public safety officers, utility workers, wildlife conservation officers, and more. There are at least $6.3 trillion in future pension benefits promised to public employees who are members of the 228 largest public pension systems. But nationally, only $4.9 trillion has been set aside to pay for those benefits.
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This means that there is a deficit of national public pension funds of about 1.4 trillion dollars, as of June 30, 2022 (formally, this deficit is called unfunded liabilities).
Together, these funded ratio and unfunded liability metrics help reveal the best and worst funded pension plans in the United States. We've combined the various pension plans in each state to compile the following list that categorizes unfunded pension obligations by state.
It is important to understand that within certain states there can be a wide range of funding ratios for different pension plans. For example, in California, while the average state funding rate is 79%, some plans are 100% funded (Employees Retirement Association of Contra Costa County), while others have run out of money and are completely dependent on state legislation to bail them out every year (Court Retirement System).
The dollar amount of unfunded liabilities generally also depends on the size of the government's workforce and economy. States like Texas and Florida have large unfunded liability dollars in part because their state and local pension systems have been in trouble, and in part because they are simply too big states.
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A useful way to understand how problematic unfunded state pension liabilities are is to compare them to each state's economy. And the usual measure of state economic activity is state GDP, or gross domestic product.
We constructed the following graph where each dot represents a state: from top to bottom, states on the graph are organized by their capitalization ratio; from left to right, countries are arranged by non-fund liability as a share of GDP.
Note: The data in this article comes from the "Status of pensions 2022" of the Institute. The list of states is based on public pension plan funding estimates through June 30, 2022. The state capitalization ratios and GDP chart are based on data from fiscal year 2021 because there is not enough state economic data for 2022. For methodological details, see the full report. The 228 state and local pension plans in this analysis represent more than 90% of all public pension funds in the United States.
Public pension contribution rates have risen significantly in recent decades. Some governments had higher increases than others. In many places the mandatory pension [...]
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The assumed average rate of return for public pension plans in the United States is 6.9%, as of September 2022. The median is 7.0%. […]
There are many factors that prospective K-12 teachers must consider when entering the educational workforce. People generally pay more attention to […]According to the 10/30/60 rule, 60% of your retirement income comes from the investment returns you make during your retirement. Although this rule of thumb came from an American study, the principle is generally valid for Australian retirees and highlights the importance of continuing to earn a good return on your investments in your retirement years.
During their working years, most Australians choose a balanced or growth super fund, with 60-80% of their money invested in growth assets such as shares and property.
However, as people approach or reach retirement, capital preservation becomes an important consideration. At this age and stage of life, it is generally recommended that you reduce the percentage of growth assets in your investment portfolio to reduce risk. This is to limit what is called sequential risk, that is, the risk that a bad year at the start of retirement will negatively affect the total amount of income available to you during your retirement.
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This is also the logic behind lifecycle super funds, which automatically reduce the percentage of growth funds in your account as you age. For example, life cycle funds for people born in the 1990s have an average of 88% of their money invested in growth assets, while those born in the 1950s may have 45% invested in growth assets.
Retirees with a super pension get a boost, even if they reduce the risk and therefore the return, because there is no tax on investment gains in the retirement phase. In the accumulation phase (essentially while you're working), your super fund's investment earnings are taxed at 15%.
Important: When super and pension performance tables are published in the media, it is important to note that they generally only list super investment options in one risk category. In most cases, this covers super investment options that are classified as 'balanced' or 'growth', which usually means 60-80% are invested in growth assets. For pensions, this usually covers investment options that are classified as "conservative" or "capital stable", which usually means they have 20-40% invested in growth assets.
Publishes pension fund performance tables for 5 risk categories (all growth (96-100% growth assets), high growth (81-95% growth assets), growth (61-80% growth assets), balanced (41-60% growth assets) and conservative (21-40% growth assets)), which facilitate the comparison of pension funds that have a similar risk profile.
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The table below shows the top 10 growth pension options (61-80% growth assets) ranked by 10-year profitability (to 31 December 2022).
Source: Canto Oeste. The top 10 are limited to growth options with assets of $1 billion or more. Performance is shown net of investment fees and taxes, before administrative and advisory fees.
If your pension fund is not in the top 10, find out how it has performed over 7 different time periods in the guides below. But as the world's population ages and the COVID-19 pandemic accelerates the already growing number of retirees, there is still a high degree of variation in the quality of public pension plans around the world.
Because a country's pension system is unique to its particular economic and historical context, direct comparisons are difficult to make. However, there are certain elements that pension experts see as universally positive and that lead to better financial support for senior citizens.
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These three measures were used to classify the pension systems of 43 different countries, representing more than 65% of the world's population. This year's iteration of the index notably includes four new countries: Iceland, Taiwan, the United Arab Emirates and Uruguay.
When it comes to the best pension plans in the world, Iceland, the Netherlands and Denmark have the top three systems.
The Icelandic system is highly ranked in all three sub-indices. The state offers a state pension with two components: mandatory contributions from both employees and employers and optional contributions for state-approved pension products.
Their system has a high contribution rate, which ultimately results in a generous state pension that retirees in Iceland can access. The country also has a relatively low gender pension gap, meaning that the difference between the average pension for women and the pension for men is relatively small, especially compared to other OECD countries.
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At the opposite end of the spectrum, the Philippines, Argentina and Thailand scored the lowest in the rankings.
Thailand scores particularly low in the adequacy category, with a score of 35.2. To improve its score, Thailand could raise minimum payouts for its poorest demographic and enroll more workers in occupational pension plans.
According to the index, countries seem to be constantly improving their pension systems. From 2020 to 2021, the average overall index score increased by 1.0.
With an average of 60.7, the index shows that the systems of most countries have some good features, but also some important shortcomings that could be eliminated with the following recommendations:
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Countries that implement even a few of these changes could make a big difference to their next generation of retirees, and those that don't could find themselves in trouble in the near future.
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Despite economic uncertainty, pension funds saw relatively strong growth in 2021. World 100
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